Fine N Ferdianti, Tersia Viradanti, Sinta D Utami


Introduction : Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 105 million people globally and resulted in at least 2.3 million deaths. Covid-19 has highlighted the vulnerability of aging populations to emerging diseases. This susceptibility to disease and death is also a major challenge for the development of vaccines and immunotherapeutic agents. Atherosclerosis is one of the main cardiovascular disease, and this disease is one of the most common comorbid diseases affected by Covid-19 and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Biomarker are crucial in decision-making in order to facilitate efficient resource allocation. Recently many researcher develop several biomarker as a new approach in epigenetic area. The discovery of new therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers using epigenetic studies may increase its clinical usefulness. 

Methods: In this narrative review, a search was carried out with the help of several search engines that match the criteria, namely "Epigenetic Studies Based On Cardiovascular Disease Especially In Atherosclerosis".

Results: One paper was obtained that supports and fits the criteria, namely the role of miRNA in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

Conclusion: miR-486-5p can be used as a new therapeutic target and biomarker in atherosclerosis patients, but this requires further research

Save to Mendeley


Epigenetic studies; Cardiovascular Disease; Atherosclerosis

Full Text:



Naser N, Masic I, Zildzic M. Public Health Aspects of COVID19 Infection with Focus on Cardiovascular Diseases. Mater Socio Medica. 2020;32(1):71.

Palmieri L, Vanacore N, Donfrancesco C, Lo Noce C, Canevelli M, Punzo O, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Hospitalized Individuals Dying with COVID-19 by Age Group in Italy. Journals Gerontol - Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020;75(9):1796–800.

Shi S, Qin M, Shen B, Cai Y, Liu T, Yang F, et al. Association of Cardiac Injury with Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(7):802–10.

Nishiga M, Wang DW, Han Y, Lewis DB, Wu JC. COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical perspectives. Nat Rev Cardiol [Internet]. 2020;17(9):543–58. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-0413-9

Gerc V, Masic I, Salihefendic N, Zildzic M. Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) in COVID-19 Pandemic Era. Mater Socio Medica. 2020;32(2):158.

Grzegorowska O, Lorkowski J. Possible Correlations between Atherosclerosis, Acute Coronary Syndromes and COVID-19. J Clin Med. 2020;9(11):3746.

Lau D, McAlister FA. Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Cardiovascular Disease and Risk-Factor Management. Can J Cardiol. 2020;

Atlante S, Mongelli A, Barbi V, Martelli F, Farsetti A, Gaetano C. The epigenetic implication in coronavirus infection and therapy. Clin Epigenetics [Internet]. 2020;12(1):1–12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13148-020-00946-x

Jin Z, Liu Y. DNA methylation in human diseases [Internet]. Vol. 5, Genes and Diseases. Chongqing Medical University; 2018. 1–8 p. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gendis.2018.01.002

Schäfer A, Baric RS. Epigenetic landscape during coronavirus infection. Pathogens. 2017;6(1).

Yan MS, Marsden PA. Epigenetics in the Vascular Endothelium: Looking from a Different Perspective in the Epigenomics Era. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35(11):2297–306.

Turunen MP, Ylä-Herttuala S. Epigenetic regulation of key vascular genes and growth factors. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;90(3):441–6.

Berkan Ö, Arslan S, Lalem T, Zhang L, Şahin NÖ, Aydemir EI, et al. Regulation of microRNAs in coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Epigenomics. 2019;11(12):1387–97.

Suzuki HI, Miyazono K. Chapter Eight - Control of MicroRNA Maturation by p53 Tumor Suppressor and MCPIP1 Ribonuclease. In: Guo F, Tamanoi FBT-TE, editors. Eukaryotic RNases and their Partners in RNA Degradation and Biogenesis, Part B [Internet]. Academic Press; 2012. p. 163–83. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124047419000088

Parahuleva MS, Lipps C, Parviz B, Hölschermann H, Schieffer B, Schulz R, et al. MicroRNA expression profile of human advanced coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2018;8(1):7823. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25690-4

Niculescu LS, Simionescu N, Sanda GM, Carnuta MG, Stancu CS, Popescu AC, et al. MiR-486 and miR-92a identified in circulating HDL discriminate between stable and vulnerable coronary artery disease patients. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):1–13.

Niculescu LS, Simionescu N, Fuior E V., Stancu CS, Carnuta MG, Dulceanu MD, et al. Inhibition of miR-486 and miR-92a decreases liver and plasma cholesterol levels by modulating lipid-related genes in hyperlipidemic hamsters. Mol Biol Rep [Internet]. 2018;45(4):497–509. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4186-8

Hocevar BA, Prunier C, Howe PH. Disabled-2 (Dab2) mediates transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-stimulated fibronectin synthesis through TGFβ-activated kinase 1 and activation of the JNK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(27):25920–7.

Kim S Il, Kwak JH, Zachariah M, He Y, Wang L, Choi ME. TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 and TAK1-binding protein 1 cooperate to mediate TGF-beta1-induced MKK3-p38 MAPK activation and stimulation of type I collagen. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):F1471-8.

Kim S Il, Choi ME. TGF-β-activated kinase-1: New insights into the mechanism of TGF-β signaling and kidney disease. Kidney Res Clin Pract [Internet]. 2012;31(2):94–105. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.krcp.2012.04.322

Atkins GB, Simon DI. Interplay between NF-kB and kruppel-like factors in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis: Location, location, location. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(3):2–4.

Jongstra-Bilen J, Haidari M, Zhu S-N, Chen M, Guha D, Cybulsky MI. Low-grade chronic inflammation in regions of the normal mouse arterial intima predisposed to atherosclerosis. J Exp Med. 2006 Sep;203(9):2073–83.

Sun Y, Su Q, Li L, Wang X, Lu Y, Liang J. MiR-486 regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis by p53-mediated BCL-2 associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. BMC Cardiovasc Disord [Internet]. 2017;17(1):119. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-017-0549-7

Hoekstra M, van der Lans CAC, Halvorsen B, Gullestad L, Kuiper J, Aukrust P, et al. The peripheral blood mononuclear cell microRNA signature of coronary artery disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Apr;394(3):792–7.

Zhang R, Lan C, Pei H, Duan G, Huang L, Li L. Expression of circulating miR-486 and miR-150 in patients with acute myocardial infarction. BMC Cardiovasc Disord [Internet]. 2015;15(1):1–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-015-0042-0

Niculescu LS, Simionescu N, Sanda GM, Carnuta MG, Stancu CS, Popescu AC, et al. MiR-486 and miR-92a Identified in Circulating HDL Discriminate between Stable and Vulnerable Coronary Artery Disease Patients. PLoS One [Internet]. 2015 Oct 20;10(10):e0140958. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140958

Creemers EE, Tijsen AJ, Pinto YM. Circulating MicroRNAs: Novel biomarkers and extracellular communicators in cardiovascular disease? Circ Res. 2012;110(3):483–95.

Kim S Il, Kwak JH, Zachariah M, He Y, Wang L, Choi ME. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 and TAK1-binding protein 1 cooperate to mediate TGF-β1-induced MKK3-p38 MAPK activation and stimulation of type I collagen. Am J Physiol - Ren Physiol. 2007;292(5):1471–9.

Liu D, Zhang M, Xie W, Lan G, Cheng HP, Gong D, et al. MiR-486 regulates cholesterol efflux by targeting HAT1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun [Internet]. 2016;472(3):418–24. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.11.128

Rogers MA, Liu J, Song BL, Li BL, Chang CCY, Chang TY. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs/SOATs): Enzymes with multiple sterols as substrates and as activators. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol [Internet]. 2015;151:102–7. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.09.008

Warrier M, Zhang J, Bura K, Kelley K, Wilson MD, Rudel LL, et al. Sterol O-Acyltransferase 2-Driven Cholesterol Esterification Opposes Liver X Receptor-Stimulated Fecal Neutral Sterol Loss. Lipids. 2016;51(2):151–7.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33508/jwmj.v3i4.3509


  • There are currently no refbacks.